practitioners are concerned with the heath-care needs of families.
They receive broad training that allows them to treat about 90% of all
problems presented to them by patients.
internal medicine diagnose and treat diseases of the internal organs,
such as the heart, liver, and lungs.
use surgical procedures to repair injuries, fight disease, and correct
deformities and defects. Surgeons can work in many specialties like
orthopedics, oncology, or neurology.
Pediatricians care for infants and children.
Psychiatrists help people with their emotional problems and treat and
prevent diseases of the mind.
Anesthesiologists administer anesthetics for diagnostic and surgical
Cardiologists are doctors who specialize in diseases of the heart,
lungs, and blood vessels. They diagnose and manage life-threatening
conditions like heart attacks and abnormal heartbeat rhythms.
Dermatologists are concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of
diseases of the skin, mouth, hair, and nails.
Endocrinologists are concerned with the complex collection of
hormone-producing glands that control basic body functions like metabolism
and growth. Too much or too little of a certain hormone can have effects
throughout the body and cause various endocrine disorders. The endocrine
system consists of the pituitary gland, hypothalamus, pancreas, adrenal
cortex, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands and gonads.
Gastroenterologists specialize in treating the digestive organs,
including the stomach, bowels, liver, and gallbladder. Conditions
affecting these organs include abdominal pain, ulcers, cancer, and
Neurologists provide diagnosis and treatment of all types of disease
or impaired function of the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves,
muscles, and nervous systems.
Hematologists specialize in diseases of the blood, spleen, and lymph
glands. They diagnose and treat conditions like anemia, clotting
disorders, sickle cell disease, hemophilia, and cancers like leukemia and
Histopathologists study the human tissue for signs of disease. They
often examine tissue that has been removed during surgery to determine if
it is malignant or not. They also examine preserved organs which will be
used in transplant surgery.
Immunologists evaluate, diagnose and manage disorders involving the
immune system. Some examples of such conditions include asthma,
anaphylaxis, eczema, and adverse reactions to drugs, foods and insect
Nephrologists are concerned with disorders of the kidney, high blood
pressure, and fluid and mineral balance. They often work with other
surgeons for patients requiring kidney removal or transplants.
Obstetricians and gynecologists care for women during and after
pregnancy, deliver babies, and treat problems related to the female
Oncologists are physicians who study, diagnose, and treat cancerous
tumors. Oncologists may also specialize in many areas including
radiological oncology, treating cancer through radiation therapy; clinical
oncology, working to find the most successful strategies to fight cancer;
and pediatric oncologists, treating children with cancer.
Opthalmologists treat diseases and defects of the eye.
Orthopedists treat diseases, fractures, and deformities of the bones
Otolaryngologists are head and neck surgeons who diagnose and treat
disorders of the ears, nose, throat, and related structures of the head
Podiatrists treat conditions that affect the feet or ankles.
Conditions they commonly treat include nail problems, flat feet, arch
pain, fractures, and sports related injuries.
Physiatrists specialize in "physical medicine and rehabilitation".
Their expertise is in helping people cope with the physical effects of a
disorder, like eating, breathing and moving. They are usually highly
skilled in the areas of exercise, assisted ventilation and the use of
surgeons correct functional and cosmetic problems. They perform
procedures to improve appearance, to repair scars or burned skin, or
reconstruct areas damaged by cancer or accidents.
Pulmonologists specialize in disorders of the lungs and structures
associated with the lungs, such as the muscles that control breathing.